But, in the first place, the number of ages is reduced to very narrow limits, on a proper consideration of the matter. If men, for instance, had attempted mechanical labors with their hands alone, and without the power and aid of instruments, as they have not hesitated to carry on the labors of their understanding with the unaided efforts of their mind, they would have been able to move and overcome but little, though they had exerted their utmost and united powers.
But demonstrations are in some manner themselves systems of philosophy and science; for such as they are, and accordingly as they are regularly or improperly Edition: For as in the drawing of a straight line, or accurate circle by the hand, much depends on its steadiness and practice, but if a ruler or compass be employed there is little occasion for either; so it is with our method.
Those who become practically versed in nature are, the mechanic, the mathematician, the physician, the alchemist, and the magician, 1 but all as matters now stand with faint efforts and meagre success. The Aristotelian philosophy, after destroying other systems as the Ottomans 31 do their brethren by its disputatious confutations, decided upon everything, and Aristotle himself then raises up questions at will, in order to settle them; so that everything should be certain and decided, a method now in use among his successors.
As I have never aimed at making any collection of books upon this subject, I have none of those you have abridged in so concise a manner. Plato borrowed his doctrines from oriental and Egyptian philosophers, for he had travelled both in India and Egypt.
Knowledge and human power are synonymous, since the ignorance of the cause frustrates the effect; for nature is only subdued by submission, and that which in contemplative philosophy corresponds with the cause in practical science becomes the rule.
We have war now in earnest. Nor are those much better which can be deduced from the character of the time and age, than the former from that of the country and nation; for in that age the knowledge both of time and of the world was confined and meagre, which is one of the worst evils for those who rely entirely on experience—they had not a thousand years of history worthy of that name, but mere fables and ancient traditions; they were acquainted with but a small portion of the regions and countries of the world, for they indiscriminately called all nations situated far toward the north Scythians, all those to the west Celts; they knew nothing of Africa but the nearest part of Ethiopia, or of Asia beyond Edition: Without this, our Union will be but a brittle China vase, a house of ice, or a palace of glass.
On the contrary, the real order of experience begins by setting up a light, and then shows the road by it, commencing with a regulated and digested, not a misplaced and vague course of experiment, and thence deducing axioms, and from those axioms new experiments: Therefore the Scotch high-landers, who practise the same thing in miniature, are emigrants from Asia.
The unassisted hand and the understanding left to itself possess but little power. But as we observed at first, we are not to deny the authority of the human senses and understanding, although weak, but rather to furnish them with assistance.
We have but one simple method of delivering our sentiments, namely, we must bring men to particulars and their regular series and order, and they must for a while renounce their notions, and begin to form an acquaintance with things.
In the preceding ages, during the second epoch that of the Romansphilosophical meditation and labor was chiefly occupied and wasted in moral philosophy the theology of the heathens: You do not want to start with lots of boring data points and save the good stuff to the end.
We have a good instance of this in the school of Leucippus and Democritus compared with others, for they applied themselves so much to particulars as almost to neglect the general structure of things, while the others were so astounded while gazing on the structure that they did not penetrate the simplicity of nature.
The devil, or the source of evil; they are not metaphysicians enough as yet to suppose it, or at least to call it matter, like the wiseacres of antiquity and like Frederic the Great, who has written a very silly essay on the origin of evil, in which he ascribes it all to matter, as if this was an original discovery of his own.
But by far the greatest impediment and aberration of the human understanding proceeds from the dulness, incompetence, and errors of the senses; since whatever strikes the senses preponderates over everything, however superior, which does not immediately strike them.
And this species of idols is removed with greater facility, because it can be exterminated by the constant refutation or the desuetude of the theories themselves. But if they chose to make a selection, and to remove the weak, and only employ the strong and vigorous, thinking by this means, at any rate, to achieve their object, would he not say that they were more fondly deranged.
Nay, we openly express and declare that the philosophy we offer will not be very useful in such respects. For men imagine that their reason governs words, while, in fact, words react upon the understanding; and this has rendered philosophy and the sciences sophistical and inactive.
The Indians are not metaphysicians enough to have discovered this idea, this logos, this intermediate power between Edition: But physicians exercise a much more useful labor in the consideration of the secondary qualities of things, and the operations of attraction, repulsion, attenuation, inspissation, dilatation, astringency, separation, maturation, and the like; and would do still more if they would not corrupt these proper observations by the two systems I have alluded to, of elementary qualities and specific powers, by which they either reduce the secondary to first qualities, and their subtile and immeasurable Edition: But those which we employ in the whole process leading from the senses and things to axioms and conclusions, are fallacious and incompetent.
Let such, therefore, be our precautions in contemplation, that we may ward off and expel the idols of the den, which mostly owe their birth either to some predominant pursuit, or, secondly, to an excess in synthesis and analysis, or, thirdly, to a party zeal in favor of certain ages, or, fourthly, to the extent or narrowness of the subject.
As a consulting trick, just go to amazon. But the wisdom of the Greeks was professional and disputatious, and thus most adverse to the investigation of truth.
Our method and that of the sceptics 7 agree in some respects at first setting out, but differ most widely, and are completely opposed to each other in their conclusion; for they roundly assert that nothing can be known; we, that but a small part of nature can be known, by the present method; their next step, however, is to destroy the authority of the senses and understanding, while we invent and supply them with assistance.
Nor were even these more ancient philosophers free from the national defect, but inclined too much to the ambition and vanity of forming a sect, and captivating public opinion, and we must despair of any inquiry after truth when it condescends to such trifles.
But if they chose to make a selection, and to remove the weak, and only employ the strong and vigorous, thinking by this means, at any rate, to achieve their object, would he not say that they were more fondly deranged. All the signs, therefore, of the truth and soundness of the received systems of philosophy and the sciences are unpropitious, whether taken from their origin, their fruits, their progress, the confessions of their authors, or from unanimity.
Jul 05, · unambiguously. The presentation is based on a book entitled “The Pyramid Principle: Logic in Writing,” by Barbara Minto (Prentice Hall, London, ). The Minto Pyramid Principle: Logic in Writing, Thinking and Problem Solving ( edition) supersedes the Pyramid Principle book, which was written in and re-issued by the publisher unchanged in The Minto Pyramid Principle textbook explains in detail.
The Pyramid Principle advocates that “ideas in writing should always form a pyramid under a single thought.” The single thought is the answer to the executive’s question.
Online Library of Liberty. A collection of scholarly works about individual liberty and free markets.
A project of Liberty Fund, Inc. logic in writing logic in thinking logic in problem solving logic in presentation -shachi h parikh 2. OBJECTIVE • The main objective for having logic in writing, thinking, problem solving and presentation is to enhance clear communication to facilitate easy and correct flow of information.
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